Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a technology typically used by ophthalmologists to both diagnose and guide different treatments in the eye. 2D and 3D cross-sections of the retina and optic nerve are produced using light waves. Scans are created by means of interferometric patterns of the light being backscattered by the sample and a reference path. These scans make it possible to calculate the thickness and composition of the tissue down to the sub-micron scale allowing to morphologically identify the cells.
Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) can be employed to miniaturize optical components such as beam splitters, interferometers, focusing lenses. All these components can be fabricated all together on the same platform, drastically reducing the size of the device. An example is the recent development of miniaturized OCT using PICs.